Welcome to NeuroEducation

Our system is a complete framework for evaluating subjects' cognitive capabilities using "Automatic Scoring" and QEEG analysis, conduct neurofeedback sessions, monitor and their improvement. It also allows detailed analysis of the EEG recordings using both proprietary and open source tools.

There are about 80 billion neurons and over 100 trillion synapses (up to 1,000 trillion, by some estimates) in the human brain. The electrical activity produced by these neurons and synapses can be measured on the cortical and subcortical level. It’s like the Colorado river on steroids. All this activity is somehow related to cognition. If we could understand how this mass of electrical activity is related to memory, reading and problem solving and other cognitive functions, we could directly address the electrophysiological problem with operant conditioning (rewarding and inhibiting the electrical signals) and improve how the brain performs.

Understanding the relationship between the electrical activity and cognition has been the focus of Dr. Kirtley Thornton's research for the past 22+ years. He was able to achieve significantly better memory improvement results than tutoring programs, computer interventions, and cognitive rehabilitation programs. On average the experimental group was performing 68% better than the normal group on auditory memory and 52% better on reading memory. Peer reviewed research show average gains of 15 points on IQ tests. In addition, all the groups were performing above their respective normative reference group memory performances, thus “cured” of their memory problems. In addition, there were significant changes in values of the QEEG’s communication variables (coherence and phase). Thus, documented changes in the physical functioning of the brain has been established. We can change the brain!

Our Approach

We have developed a highly automated cognitive activation QEEG evaluation which assesses 6 cognitive skills (auditory and visual attention, auditory and reading memory, working memory, problem solving) while the QEEG data is collected. A subject’s response pattern is compared to the normative database on the variables critical to success on the specific cognitive skill. The automated biofeedback software addresses the deficit variables on a mathematically prioritized basis, which is continually reevaluated as the subject goes through the sessions. The performance is graphed at the end of the session and the data is saved for future analysis.

The technician’s job is primarily (for the evaluation and feedback sessions) to place the cap on the head and obtain adequate impedance measurements. For the evaluation, the technician inputs demographic information, keeps an eye out for excessive artifact (non-EEG signals), and scores the subject’s verbal recall (8 tasks). For the biofeedback sessions, the technician inputs the subject’s name and the selects the cognitive task to be addressed. The software is designed to conduct the evaluation and biofeedback sessions with the most minimal technician involvement possible. The approach has been granted a USPTO patent: QEEG Correlates of Effective Cognitive Functioning (memory and problem solving) in Diverse Clinical Conditions, patent issued 2/27/2018, #9,901,279 B2.

There are 5 major conditions evident in children which can benefit from an EEG biofeedback intervention:

11% of children age 4-11 (6.4 million) has Attention Deficit / Hyperactive Disorder according to CDC. 1 in 6 children in the U.S. had a Developmental Disabilities in 2006–2008. 1 in 68 has Autism (CDC). Approximately 475,000 traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) occur in children younger than 14 years old annually. Around 2 million children have Specific Learning Disability (NCES).

Attention Deficit / Hyperactive Disorder - Impulsivity

A meta-analysis (15 studies) on neurofeedback found large effect sizes for inattention (.81 SD) and medium effects sizes (.55 SD) for hyperactivity and impulsivity [3]. For RCTs that also performed follow-up to 6 months or 2 years it was demonstrated that the effects did not disappear with time, and a tendency for further improvement across time for hyper-activity/impulsivity.

Pervasive Developmental Disabilities – Mental Retardation

In one study [4], 19 out of 23 patients showed significant improvement on the WISC-R, and the TOVA. For the WISC-R test, 2 showed decline on total IQ due to the decline on some of the subtests, 2 showed no improvement on total IQ although improvement was seen on some of the subtests. This study provides the first evidence for positive effects of NF treatment in mental retardation.

Autism

In another study [5], assessment-guided neurofeedback was conducted in 20 sessions for 37 patients with ASD. The experimental and control groups were matched for age, gender, race, handedness, other treatments, and severity of ASD. Improved ratings of ASD symptoms reflected an 89% success rate. Statistical analyses revealed significant improvement in Autistics who received Neurofeedback compared to a wait list control group. Other major findings included a 40% reduction in core ASD symptomatology (indicated by ATEC Total Scores), and 76% of the experimental group had decreased hyper connectivity. In all cases of reported improvement in ASD symptomatology, positive treatment outcomes were confirmed by neuropsychological and neurophysiological assessment.

Brain Injury

Presently employed intervention models for the cognitive effects of a brain injury have not fulfilled their initial goal of alleviating their cognitive problems. The average effect size across all interventions (except activation EEG biofeedback) is .50 standard deviations (SD) [6].

Auditory memory results shows 2.3 SD effectiveness (N=36), after employing an activation cognitive quantitative EEG (QEEG) evaluation to guide the EEG biofeedback sessions. This approach offers significant improvement over other commonly employed methods. In addition, the TBI subjects were performing above the normative reference group memory values, thus “cured” of their memory problems.

The QEEG has also been very useful in the diagnosis of TBI. Thornton, K. (2014) reported that the QEEG can obtain 99% accuracy in the determination of a TBI (N=162-200). The initial accuracy rate and cross validation rate is the highest we presently have available in this area [6]. Thus, the QEEG offers the best diagnostic aid and intervention methodology to improve the cognitive abilities of the TBI subject.

Learning Disabilities

QEEG provided over 200% improvement in auditory and reading across the 4 groups studied [8].

Result

This approach is the best option we have for these children. The approach does not teach any specific information, but rather improves the ability of the subject to absorb information. Ask one of these children to tell you what they recall after a class. You will find they recall very little. A tutoring component and the relationships with the tutors provide a necessary and critical component. Following are some videos available which explain some of what we are presenting:

Kirtley Thornton's Neurotherapy Approach

Nerves Connect- Episode Three, Nerve Network "Signatures"

References

  1. CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Data
  2. Langlois, J.A., Rutland-Brown, W., Thomas, K.E. (2005). The incidence of traumatic brain injury among children in the United States: differences by race. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20(3), 229-238.
  3. Martijn Arns et al. (2014). Evaluation of neurofeedback in ADHD: The long and winding road, Biological Psychology, 118, 108-115.
  4. Surmeli T, Ertem A., Clin EEG Neurosci. 2010 Jan;41(1):32-41
  5. Assessment-Guided Neurofeedback for Autistic Spectrum Disorder, Robert Coben, Ph.D. & Ilean Padolsky, Ph.D
  6. Cognition Health Conference, Navigating the Mindfield, Thursday 12th October 2017.
  7. Thornton, K. & Carmody, D. (2009). Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation: QEEG Biofeedback Treatment Protocols, Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, (34) 1, 59-68.
  8. Thornton, K. & Carmody, D. (2013). The Relation between Memory improvement and QEEG changes in three clinical groups as a result of EEG biofeedback treatment, Journal of Neurotherapy, 17(2). 116-132.
  9. Hellgren, L., Smauelsson, K., Lundqvist, A., Borsbo, B. (2015). Computerized Training of Working Memory for Patients with Acquired Brain Injury, Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, 46-55
  10. Lundqvist, A., Grundström, K., Samuelsson, K. and Rönnberg, J. (2010) Computerized Training of Working Memory in a Group of Patients Suffering from Acquired Brain Injury. Brain Injury, 24, 1173-1183.
  11. Rohling, M. L., Faust, M. E., Beverly, B. L., & Demakis, G. (2009). Effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation following acquired brain injury: A meta-analytic re-examination of Cicerone et al.’s (2000, 2005) systematic reviews. Neuropsychology, 23(1), 20-39.
  12. Thornton, K. (2014). A QEEG activation methodology which obtains 100% accuracy in the discrimination of traumatic brain injured from normal and does the learning disabled show the brain injury pattern?, Neuroregulation, 1 (3-4), 209-217